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新疆十一选五前三组:英語助動詞ppt

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這是英語助動詞ppt下載,主要介紹了什么是助動詞;分類及簡介;基本助動詞;情態助動詞;非縮略形式的使用場合,歡迎點擊下載。

助動詞協助主要動詞構成謂語動詞詞組的詞叫助 動詞(Auxiliary Verb)。被協助的動詞稱作主要動詞(Main Verb)。 助動詞自身沒有詞義,不可單獨使用。如: He doesn't like English.他不喜歡英語。 (doesn't是助動詞,無詞義;like是主要動詞,有詞義) 分類及簡介助動詞分為:基本助動詞,情態助動詞,半助動詞?;局剩篵e,do,have 情態助動詞:shall, will, should, would,could 半助動詞:以be為中心成分,以have為中心成分,以seem為中心成分。一、基本助動詞助動詞have的用法: 1)have +過去分詞,構成完成時態。如: He has left for London. By the end of last month, they had finished half of their work. 2)have + been +現在分詞,構成完成進行時。如: I have been studying English for ten years. 3)have + been +過去分詞,構成完成式被動語態。如: English has been taught in China for many years. 助動詞do 的用法: 1)構成一般疑問句。如: Do you want to pass the CET? 2)do + not 構成否定句。如: He doesn't like to study. In the past, many students did not know the importance of English. 3)構成否定祈使句。如: Don't be so absent-minded. 說明: 構成否定祈使句只用do,不用 did和does。 4)放在動詞原形前,加強該動詞的語氣。如: Do come to my birthday party. I did go there. 5)用于倒裝句,例如: Never did I hear of such a thing. Only when we begin our college life do we realize the importance of English. 只有在開始大學生活時我們才認識到英語的重要性。 6)用作代動詞,例如: — Do you like Beijing? — Yes, I do. (do用作代動詞,代替like Beijing.) He knows how to drive a car, doesn't he? 他知道如何開車,對吧?二、情態助動詞 1 can/could (1)指主觀能力。 Can指現在和將來。指過去的能力一般用was/were able to How long can you hold your breath under water? That is easy.I can do that tomorrow. could have done 用于虛擬語氣指“過去本來能夠卻沒有” she should have explained the mystery. 她本可以解釋這個秘密的。(2)表可能。Can 表可能時常用于疑問句和否定句,指某事是否事實。 Can it be true? We can’t change a law. He said he couldn’t agree more. (3)表允許用于非正式場合。 Can在肯定疑問句中表要求在否定句中表禁止。 You can smoke in the entrance hall. Can you lend me 2yuan? Could 用于這個意義時只用于疑問句,語氣更加委婉。 Could you please fetch us a few cups? (4)表感情色彩。表某種情緒。 What can satisfied her?(不滿) What else can you say?(不耐煩) How can I do such a thing ?(難辦) 注意 Can與could 的區別與聯系(1)Could是can的過去式,除具can的各種功能外,還用來表示語氣委婉。(2)Can和could還可以表示某人或某物一時的特點指“有可能有時會” It can be very misty in this area. 這里有時會大霧彌漫。 He could be very proud. 他有時會很驕傲 2、may與might (1)表示可以做或可能發生的事 He may come soon. You may order a taxi by telephone. Might用于間接引語;也表客觀未實現的動作 He said he might order a taxi by telephone. 他說他可以用電話定出租車。 He might have fallen ill if he hadn’t take the medicine. 他如果沒服藥可能就病倒了(2)表允許,多用于肯定句和疑問句,正式場合 You may take the book home。 .你可以把這本書帶回家。 May I borrow your bicycle? 我可以借你的自行車嗎? Might 表允許時比may更有禮貌。 Might I have a little brandy? 我可以喝一點白蘭地嗎?(3)表祝愿通常用may此時句子用倒轉語序。 May our friendship live long. Happy may your birthday be . May god bless you . (4)might可用于虛擬語氣 If you didn’t mind ,I might go there. 如果你不反對的話,我可能就去那里。 Why on earth didn’t he send to say that he was ill? We might have helped him. 究竟為什么他不捎信來說他生病了?我們幫助他的。(5)may might用于某些從句。 However cold it may be ,we will go skiing. 不管天多冷,我們都要去滑雪。(6)固定詞組 May well+do意為“理應有足夠的理由” May/might as well+do 用來建議或勸說某人采取是某種行動。意為“還不如,不妨” He may well be proud of his son. 他大可以以他的兒子為榮。 He might as well throw your money into the sea as lend it to him. 借錢給他還不如把錢扔到海里。注意: (1)may/might比較表推測時,might比may更不確定。表允許時,might比may更有禮貌。(2)might may can could比較 may和can表可觀可能和允許時意義相同,但是也不能隨意互換。表可觀可能時 ,may僅用于肯定句而can可用于各種句式。 He may find the book at the library. Can he find the book at the loibrary? He can’t find the book at the library. might 和could 后跟不定時完成時表示過去未實現的動作。 He might have found the book at the library. 他可以在圖書館找到這本書就好了(實際未找到)。 He could have found the book at the library. 他能夠在圖書館找到這本書就好了(實際未找到) may較正式,而can口語化。 May (might) I speak to you for a moment, professor? Can(could) I have a cup of tea,mom? could 有時也可表示推測,因此三者可以互換。 He may/might/could br at the conference. may not 表示不可能時,重音落在may上。 May not表示不許可時,重音落在否定詞上。 因此在書面語中,為防止歧義,表示不可能用can’t 3 will/would will would 表請求,指將來,用于疑問句。此時would更委婉 would you mind closing he door? Will you give her the letter? Will would 表習慣反復動作,用于肯定句。 You will have your own way. 你總是想怎樣就怎樣。 Will would 表料想推測,指沒現在或將來,用于二三人稱??捎媒惺敝趕衷?,完成式指過去。 Hurry up . They will be waiting . 快點,他們一定在等我們。 He will have got home by now. 他該到家了。推測程度由高到低為 must—will—would—ought to—should—can—could—may--might Will would 表意愿,用于第一人稱。Will指將來,would用于間接引語指過去的將來 I won’t argue with you . I said I would do anything for him . Will would 用于非人稱主語,表示固有的性質傾向,通常用于否定句。 The window won’t open.窗戶打不開。 The door won’t shut.門關不上 Will would 表拒絕用于否定句即won’t I won’t marry a man I don’t love. I won’t listen to your nonsenses . Would 用于虛擬語氣 I wish the rain would stop for a moment. You would answer much better if you were more attentive. 注意:比較would與used to 二者均可表示習慣不同之處在于,used to有現在已無此習慣的意思 ,并可表示一次性動作。 I don’t swim so often as I used to. 我不想過去那樣長游泳了。 4.shall與should shall的用法 Shall除在一般將來時中用于第一人稱外,還有以下用法: 1. 表義務,用于第二三人稱。如: You shall do as you see me do. 你照我做的樣子做。 He shall be punished if she disobeys. 如果他不服從就要受到處罰。 在當代英語中,shall多用于正式法律文字。如: This law shall have effect in Scotland. 2. 表許諾,用于第二三人稱的肯定句和否定句。如:(1)you shall have my answer tomorrow? 你明天可以得到我的答復。(2)she shall get her share. 我可以得到她的一份。 3 .表征詢意見,用于第一三人稱的疑問句。如:(1)What shall he do next? 下一步他要干什么呢?(2)Let’s start tomorrow, shall we? 我們明天動身,好嗎? 4 表義務,可用于各種句式,通常指將來。如:(1)If you see something unusual you should call the police. 如果你看到什么不尋常的事,你應該喊警察。(肯定句)(2)You shouldn’t come to such a decision hastily. 你不應該匆忙做出這種決定。(否定句) What should she do? 她該怎么辦呢?(疑問句) 5. Should 后跟不定式完成式,用于肯定句表應完成但未完成的動作。如: He should have told me. 他本該告訴我。 用于否定句則表不應完成但已完成的動作。如: They shouldn’t have concealed it from us. 他們本不應該對我們隱瞞那件事。 6。 感情色彩,常用在以why, how 開頭的疑問句中。如:(1)Why shouldn’t you invite him? 為什么你不邀請他? (2)How should I know? 我怎么知道? 在一些that 引導的從句中,should 也可以表感情色彩。如: I'm sorry that you should think so badly of me. 你竟把我想得這樣壞,我感到遺憾。 Three weeks should suffice. 三個星期可能足夠了。 7.用于虛擬語氣表推測,暗含很大的可能。如: I suggest that you should stay here as if nothing had happened. 我建議你待在這兒,就好像什么事也沒有發生。 must 的用法 1. must表義務,后跟不定式一般式,可用于肯定句和疑問句。如: Children must forma good habit in their everyday life. 兒童必須在他們的日常生活中養成良好的習慣。 Must he do it himself? 他必須親自做那件事嗎? 2. must的否定形式表不許,后跟不定式一般式。如: Journalists must not make mistakes in their newspaper reports. 記者不允許在新聞報道中出錯。 3. must表推測,暗含很大的可能,只用于肯定句。如:(1)I don’t understand what they are saying. They must be foreign.我聽不懂他們在說什么。他們一定是外國來的。(2)Let’s have something to eat. You must be starving. 我們吃些東西吧。你一定餓了。 need 的用法 用作情態助動詞時,它只有一種形式,沒有人稱和數的變化,后跟不帶to的不定式,主要用于否定句和疑問句。否定式為needn’t. Need have+過去分詞,可用于比較結構中。 (1)She was more careful than she need have been. 她不必那么小心的。 (2)He drove faster than he need have done. 他沒有必要把車開那么快。 Need not have+過去分詞,還可表示“不必做某事,但卻做了”。 (1)You need not have asked her about it. 你本不必問那件事的。(但卻問了) (2)She needn’t have come. 她本來不必來的。(但卻來了=But she did.) dare----dared的用法 dare 意為“敢于”,既可用作助動詞,又可用作行為動詞。作助動詞用時,dare通用于所有人稱,否定式為dare not,后接動詞原形;作行為動詞用時,dare 的否定式是don’t (doesn’t,didn’t)dare,現在完成式是have dared,后接帶to 的動詞不定式。 如表: 1.dare 作為情態助動詞表示“膽敢”,dare 通常只用于陳述否定句和疑問句。如: I dare not go there. How dare he say such rude things about me? (1)dare 作為情態助動詞多用現在時形式,但它既可指現在時間,也可指過去時間。如: The president was so hot-tempered that no one dare tell him the bad news. (2)dare 的否定形式(daren’t)也可指過去時間。如: Tom wanted to come, but he daren’t. 2.dare 還可用作主動詞。作為主動詞,dare也通常用于否定句和疑問句,隨后的不定式可帶to,也可不帶to.如: She didn’t dare(to) say anything about it. He does not dare(to) answer. Does she dare (to) go there along? 3. dare的過去時形式dared 通常只用于文學語言等正式語體,也還是用于否定意義。如: Nobody dared lift their eyes from the ground. They hardly dared breathe as somebody walked past the door. ought to的用法 1. ought 沒有詞形變化,通用于所有人稱,否定式為ought not(oughtn’t) to (1)表示理應做的事,應該做的事,意為“應該,應當” You ought to study hard. 你應該努力學習。(=It’s your duty to study hard. ) (2)表推測,譯為“應是,應該,會是” It is already twelve o’clock .Lunch ought to be ready.現在已經是12點了,午飯應該好了。 2. ought to have+過去分詞常表示一個與過去事實相反的情況,肯定式表示“應該做某事而沒有做”,否定式表示“不應該做某事但卻做了” It is too late. You ought to have taken the chance then.現在太晚了你本該當時就抓住機會的。(But you didn’t.) His wife is vain and selfish. He oughtn’t to have married her.他妻子虛榮自私,他本不該娶她的。 Used to的用法 1.情態動詞used to 只有一種形式,它后跟不定式一般式,可以表過去存在的習慣或狀態。如: (1) In the past, people used to offer friends cigarettes when they met.過去,人民見面時經常給朋友遞煙。 (2) Nowadays he gives fewer concerts than he used to.如今他舉辦音樂會比從前少了。 2. used to 的否定結構卻有兩種形式。如: (1) He used not to /usedn’t to smoke.他過去不吸煙。 (2) He didn’t use to smoke.他過去不吸煙。 3. used to 的疑問結構常用do 的形式。如: (1) Did he use to smoke?他過去吸煙嗎? (2) He used to smoke, didn’t he?他過去吸煙,對嗎? Be used to 結構和情態動詞used to 的區別: 1. 在be used to 結構中,be 昰連系動詞,used 是形容詞,to 是介詞,因此只后跟名詞短語或動名詞。如: Heavy smokers cannot stop smoking because they are used to nicotine. 吸煙多的人不能不吸煙,因為他們對尼古丁已經上癮了。情態動詞used to 前面沒有be ,后跟不帶to 的動詞不定式。如: I used to get along very well with my cousin and we used to be very good friends. 我過去同我的表弟相處得很好,我們曾經是好朋友。 半助動詞定義:半助動詞是指在功能上介乎主動詞和助動詞之間,本身帶有詞義的一類結構。類型(3類)分別以be,have,seem為中心成分。半助動詞既能協助主動詞構成限定動詞詞組,也可以與基本助動詞或情態動詞搭配而充當主動詞。半助動詞既能是限定形式體現實體特征,也能是非限定形式,即采取不定式或-ing分詞形式。半助動詞后的主動詞用不帶to的不定式??梢允且話閾問揭部梢允墻刑寤蟯瓿商?。 (1)Why are you driving so fast in this area?you are supposed to know the speed limite. (2)Mother is still not quiet well. She is not supposed to be working so hard. (3)Why haven’t you finished your paper yet? You are supposed to have finished it by Friday evening . 半助動詞與it…that 句型轉換 It appears that he has many friends.[1] He appears to have many friends.[2] 句型2 中的不定式是采取一般形式,進行體還是完成體,是主動還是被動,取決于句型1中that分句的限定動詞詞組形式。 It seems that he is enjoying himself. He seems to be enjoying himself. 助動詞的縮略形式英語中有以下24個助動詞有縮略形式。其中23個有否定縮略形式,10個有肯定縮略形式。注意: 1. I am not 的疑問形式需用 aren’t (I)替代,如: I’m late , aren’t I? 2.否定疑問句既能用否定縮略形式,也能用非縮略形式。試比較: Haven’t we seen this film before? Have we not seen this film before? 但含義有所不同:用否定縮略形式通常帶有肯定與否定雙重意向;用非縮略否定形式通常帶有否定意向。 3.he’s, she’s, it’s=he is/he has ,she is/she has ,it is/it has. ’d=should/would/had 非縮略形式的使用場合上述能用肯定縮略形式的十個限定動詞,在下列場合不能采用縮略形式: 1. 單獨使用時。如: --You’ve seen her, haven’t you? --Yes, I have. 2. 用語句子結尾時。如: John’s not such a good student as Bill is. 3. 用于發問或附加疑問時。如: Will he come? 4. 表示強調時。如: --You’re not coming with me. --I am coming whether you like it or not. 5. have/have to 作有/必須解釋時通常也不用縮略形式。如: (1)They have three children. (2)He has to leave early. 若改用have got/have got to形式表示,則常用縮略形式: (1)They’ve got three children. (2)He’s to leave early. Thank you

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《英語助動詞ppt》是由用戶huangyixuan于2019-11-26上傳,屬于英語課件PPT。

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